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Factor II deficiency

Definition

Alternative Names

Hypoprothrombinemia; Prothrombin deficiency

Causes

Blood clotting

Watch this video about:
Blood clotting

Most commonly, factor II deficiency is caused by:

  • Lack of vitamin K due to long-term use of antibiotics, bile duct obstruction, or poor absorption of vitamin K from the intestines. Some babies are born with vitamin K deficiency.
  • Severe liver disease
  • Use of drugs that prevent clotting (anticoagulants such as warfarin or Coumadin)

Symptoms

  • Abnormal bleeding after childbirth
  • Abnormal menstrual bleeding
  • Bleeding after surgery
  • Bleeding after trauma
  • Bruising
  • Nosebleeds
  • Umbilical cord bleeding at birth

Exams and Tests

Treatment

Support Groups

You can ease the stress of illness by joining a support group [link 091-2204] where members share common experiences and problems.

Outlook (Prognosis)

The outcome can be good with proper treatment.

This is a life-long bleeding disorder if you inherit it the condition.

If it is caused by liver disease, the outcome depends on how well your liver problem can be treated.

Possible Complications

Severe bleeding, even into the brain, can occur.

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Prevention

Genetic counseling may be helpful for disorders that start at birth (congenital). When a lack of vitamin K is the cause, using vitamin K can help.

References

Ragni MV. Hemorrhagic Disorders: Coagulation Factor Deficiencies. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 177.

Gailani D, Neff AT. Rare coagulation factor deficiencies. In: Hoffman R, Benz EJ Jr, Silberstein LE, Heslop HE, Weitz JI, eds. Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2012:chap 139.


Review Date: 3/3/2013
Reviewed By: Yi-Bin Chen, MD, Leukemia/Bone Marrow Transplant Program, Massachusetts General Hospital. Also reviewed by A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc., Editorial Team: David Zieve, MD, MHA, Bethanne Black, Stephanie Slon, and Nissi Wang.
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